VNT Turbocharger

Variable Nozzle Turbocharger(VNT) is very effective in minimising the effects of turbo lag, resulting in a more responsive throttle especially at low engine speed.

Since the late 1990s many diesel cars have been fitted with a Variable Geometry Turbocharger or Variable
Nozzle Turbocharger.

These systems work by changing the speed and direction of the exhaust gases onto the turbine wheel. The most common of these systems is Garrett™s VNT ® mechanism which incorporates a ring of small movable vanes around the turbine wheel.

VNT technology, in a mono-turbo set-up, is ideally suited for diesel engines from 0.9L to 3.0L. While the majority of VNT applications are in the 1.4L to 2.0L range, the architecture is also heavily specified in the premium 3.0L V6 diesel segment.

VNT technology is  a key enabler of engine downsizing, an industry-wide trend to create smaller, more fuel-efficient and lower-emitting powertrains that match or exceed the performance of their larger counterparts.

In a VNT turbocharger, the exhaust flow through the turbine wheel is controlled by a row of vanes that move to match the exact boost requirements of the engine. At low engine speed, the variable nozzle turbine vanes close to restrict the exhaust air flow through the turbine, thereby increasing turbine power and boost pressure. At higher engine speeds, the moveable vanes open to maximize the exhaust gas flow, thereby avoiding turbo over-speed and maintaining the boost pressure required by the engine.

VNT turbochargers contribute to higher torque levels, particularly at low engine speed, and help deliver more power across a wider range, better acceleration through improved transient response and cleaner combustion. Lower emissions are made possible by Exhaust Gas Recirculation facilitated by the turbo.

The current Honeywell VNT turbos are upgraded versions of the third generation VNT launched in 2004. The key advance was the ground-breaking way that the variable mechanisms were attached onto the bearing housing through an elastic shroud. This new platform delivered many innovations  a new cartridge design, new cambered vanes, a new generation turbine wheel, improved aerodynamics and better controllability.

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